Journalism and Society 2 Portfolio

* This portfolio will keep updating.


Student Name: Liping Luo

Student Number: LUO13401194

Unit Title: Journalism & Society 2

Unit Leader: Mr. Ian Hoare

Unit Tutor: Ms. Maria Constantino


This portfolio includes:


• Culturalism: Media Representation (WEEK 2)

• Post-colonialism (WEEK 7)

 The Cold War, McCarthyism and the press (WEEK 5)

• The political economy of the media: radical versus liberal theories of the press. (WEEK 4)

• Globalisation and the media (WEEK 6)

• Structuralism and after (WEEK 3)


• The impact of internet for journalism (WEEK 8, Term-2)

• Social media and journalism (WEEK 9, Term-2)



Journalism & Society 2 Section


The impact of internet for journalism (WEEK 8, Term-2)

19 March 2015

Essay Question:

Evaluate the impact of the internet on the status and practice of journalism.

The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link several billion devices worldwide. It is a network of networks (1989). Internet has been used intensively for only six decades since 1957 when it was born and it’s still changing the way we communicate. This essay will mainly discuss how internet impacts journalism from the aspects of news publisher and readers/audiences. My discussion covers multiple channels including paper press, radio, television and internet itself.

It took 40 years for the internet to be developed into a public service. There was no even any proper ‘modern’ technology for journalists at the end of 1980s – no mobile phones, no computers, and no commercial internet either. Paper press, radio and television were the main mediums which uses limited space or time to tell people what happened at those days. If breaking news happened, it would take longer and cost more for news companies to spread them out. After the internet became domestically applied, there was no doubt that it brought much more convenience.

Back to the first online breaking news, which was the Oklahoma City bombing on 19th April 1995. At that day, people started to seek for information online as never before. The online media also acts quickly – within an hour the website was filled with information, images, maps and discussions. Marshall McLuhan says that “medium is the message”, and internet has becoming one of the most vital mediums to record news since then.


First of all, internet starts new ways of storytelling: it can provide a variety of media. The internet is one of the medium through which words stories, images, audios and videos are showed simultaneously in one platform. The integration of multimedia brings more fresh and options to online news users.

Secondly, internet means unlimited space and can be used to store and connect all types of information. For instance, hypertext links create a branching structure that direct to the related information. Clicking ‘read more’ to load another relevant page, which enables people to ‘dig’ into attractive stories and topics. Hence, if traditional media (e.g. paper press/radio/television) goes online and creates its own news websites, the unlimited internet space will makes it not limited in the actual paper or time space anymore.

Thirdly, faster speed of production is the most common impact of internet for news companies. Newspapers have to wait for the next day, or even two days later if it is a late-breaking story, before being able to publish it. Throughout the development of the event, journalists are able to feed online sources the information keeping readers up-to-date in mere seconds. “Broadcast is no longer the only medium for breaking news. We don’t have to stop a press to replate… we can and did break and update and expand a story on a moments’ notice – numerous times in a single hour.” Bruce Siceoff, the editor of, website of the News and Observer in Ralegh, South California – launched it in 1994.

Fourthly, internet creates ‘citizen journalism’. New communication technology, including accessible online publishing software and evolving mobile device technology, means that citizens have the potential to observe and report more quickly than traditional media outlets. Courtney C. Radsch defines citizen journalism “as an alternative and activist form of news gathering and reporting that functions outside mainstream media institutions, often as a response to shortcomings in the professional journalistic field, that uses similar journalistic practices but is driven by different objectives and ideals and relies on alternative sources of legitimacy than traditional or mainstream journalism.” (2013) Whoever could post on the internet indicates that all the citizen could write news report independent with mainstream media, either for breaking news or normal news.

While some traditional news outlets are reacting with fear and uncertainty, many are adopting open publishing features to their own online versions. The Guardian and other mainstream media outlets have added blogs to their sites. The BBC’s web site posts reader’s photos, and other sites solicit and use reader-contributed content. Mainstream news outlets are increasingly scanning blogs and other online sources for leads on news items, and some are hiring journalists from the blogging ranks. Journalists are blogging live from courtrooms, from Baghdad, and elsewhere, allowing them to post frequent updates in near real-time.

Fifthly, the impacts of internet for journalism also related to the online news readers. Digital journalism allows connections and discussions at levels that print can not offer – people can comment and discuss news stories. Before the internet, spontaneous discussion between readers who had never met was hardly possible. People’s active participation is a big portion of digital journalism. Internet gives all audiences an opportunity to be part of the conversation and sometimes even shape the content of news sites. In a sense, the Internet has made news media more democratic.


All of these advantages and impacts of internet above save space, money and time either for journalism companies or readers; however, everything has two sides. There are also several disadvantages of internet. Firstly, Internet is a symbol of technology, and the technology is challenging the whole journalism – in the future, robots will write news. Here comes the robot reporters: minutes after Apple released its record-breaking quarterly earnings this week, the Associated Press published (by way of CNBC, Yahoo and others) “Apple tops Street 1Q forecasts.” It’s a story without a byline, or rather, without a human byline — a financial story written and published by an automated system well-versed in the AP Style Guide. The AP implemented the system six months ago and now publishes 3,000 such stories every quarter — and that number is poised to grow. (2015)

Secondly, internet is changing people’s news gathering habits because of its huge amount of diverse information, which forces the traditional media either join the internet or die – less and less people will spend their money for getting news on a actual newspaper, or spend their time on waiting for television/radio news show . On one hand, it saves money; on the other hand, developing new platforms is rather costly.

However, these two disadvantages for journalism above are the inevitable outcome of the development of the technology and society.

In this paragraph I am going to talk about the bad effects that internet brings to journalism which we could avoid: taking production speed as an example – the speed in which a story can be posted can affect the accuracy of the reporting in a way that doesn’t usually happen in print journalism. From this perspective, traditional media (such as paper press/radio/television) acts better than online journalism as the names and sources are actually there. Before the emergence of digital journalism the printing process took much more time, allowing for the discovery and correction of errors.

Now we are living in a digital world where information accumulates exponentially. It is cheap and quick to get news information online, but it is also easy to get wrong information – online information is not always genuine. Due to easy circulation and reprint, fake news and rumours appear more frequently online. Misleading information, which is before any professional edit by journalists, also flourish on internet.

Online news is usually harder to trace back to source or to verify the reporter who wrote the story, therefore dispelling a news rumour online is not easy. People always have the tendency to believe some objective opinions, but have less interested in facts, and even doubt the facticity of dispelling. Breaking a cup need only one second, but the repairing time is much more than that one second. In the same way, buzzing is much easier than dispelling on the internet.


For those bad effects of internet for journalism, are there any solutions? What shall we do as journalists? Some problems may have no solutions because they are the result of the development in technologic era. But there some have solutions. News consumers must become Web literate and use critical thinking to evaluate the credibility of sources. Because it is possible for anyone to write articles and post them on the Internet, the definition of journalism is changing. Because it is becoming increasingly simple for anyone to have an impact on the news world through tools like blogs and even comments on news stories on reputable news websites, it becomes increasingly difficult to sift through the massive amount of information coming in from the digital area of journalism.

For journalists, they should take more responsible for the truth of the information, which means carefully check the sources of news before reprinting to their own websites. Confirming accuracy is vital on journalism field. Mark Thompson, the former director-general of the BBC, said “We would rather be right than first.” when Chinese journalist Jin Chai interviewed him.

Internet news usage spikes significantly when large news stories are happening such as the Iraq War, the 9-11 attacks and the 2000 Election. In 1996 that just 4 percent of Americans had gone online for campaign news in the election, yet in the year 2000 the percentage had already increased to 20 percent. The number of Internet users has grown dramatically since then.

In 2000 United State President Campaign, George W. Bush versus Albert Gore, Jr. Many of media organizations include CNN, in order to attract people or release information in the first time, they speculated the final result, but the consequence was that they kept changing their news for three times within six hours, reprinted papers and kept correcting the reports. BBC waited until the last minute when the result officially released.

Another story, happened in 1988, an airplane exploded on the ground in Scotland, in a small town called Lockerbie, 270 people were killed. The incident was known as Lockerbie bombings. After the airline is crashed, everyone thought that was a vital news, many journalists pressed it in a hurry, but BBC decided to wait for 30 more minutes when they got the news. Mark said: “I thought it was wrong to go on air and saying an airline is crashed without saying which airline, because the panic you caused people, means if you got a family member on any airline, anywhere, you might be afraid they were in this tragedy. So that’s the example, is accepted that we will going to break the news a few minutes after our rivals, but we will do it be absolutely certain what happened, which airline was involved.”

Those two historical examples above show one of the vital principles: We would rather be right than first. “Speed is very important, but we should put speed second to be right.” Said by Thompson.

In conclusion, internet is changing the way we communicate to the world significantly. It provides unlimited space, integration of multimedia, new ways of storytelling, more immediacy and more citizen involvement – which traditional media hardly or could not provide us. There are also some bad effects such as easily get untrue news online etc.  Internet could effects journalism but cannot change the basic principles of journalism: accuracy. Learning to use the advantages and avoid the disadvantages is another step for a further civilization.

(Total words: 2256)


・RFC 1122, Requirements for Internet Hosts — Communication Layers, 1.1.2 Architectural Assumptions, 1989

The Internet’s Impact on News Media

(Centre for Communication & Civic Engagement:

・Radsch, Courtney C. The Revolutions will be Blogged: Cyberactivism and the 4th Estate in Egypt. Doctoral Dissertation, American University, 2013

AP’s ‘robot journalists’ are writing their own stories now (published on 05.03.2015)


・Jin Chai (2012) The Contemplation of UK. (Video:

Structuralism and after (WEEK 3)

In what ways can post-structuralist theory inform the practice of the contemporary journalist? Discuss with reference to the work of at least one key thinker.

Poststructuralism is the name for a movement in philosophy that began in the 1960s. One of the main theories of poststructuralism is that post-structuralism rejects the idea of a literary text having a single purpose, a single meaning, or one singular existence. Instead, every individual reader creates a new and individual purpose, meaning, and existence for a given text.

On the lecture, Andrew told us the representation – which may represent an original which did not, in fact, exist – precedes, and therefore determines, our understanding of the real.

A major theory associated with Structuralism was binary opposition. This theory proposed that there are certain theoretical and conceptual opposites, often arranged in a hierarchy, which human logic has given to text. Such binary pairs could include Enlightenment/Romantic, male/female, speech/writing, rational/emotional, signifier/signified, symbolic/imaginary. Substituting these two theories into contemporary journalism, that firstly, no news have a single meaning for everyone. Secondly, news should always as neutral as possible, and there’s no right or wrong, true of false on the news stories, there are only facts. To be honest I only understand its definition but don’t know how it relates to journalism too much, that is what all I came up with.

Poststructuralism is a restructure of all categories in the society, for instance, it questioned why gender constitutes a major factor in a social order. It questioned something that human beings think it is just normal and from what people’s words and social activities to explain why human beings are like this. Post-strucutrue focuses on the decomposition of the use of languages.

(Total words: 285)

Globalisation and the media (WEEK 6)

Assess the extent to which globalisation is changing the media for better or worse.

Globalisation is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture. It is keep changing the media for both better sides and worse sides. This short article will mainly attempt to analysis both two sides.

The first point which globalization makes media better is because more information available for the public, in terms of quantity and broadness. The second point is the shares of media technology and ideology are more ways of making media products, which are better platforms for industrial innovation. Thirdly, globalisation raises the international concern on those regions without freedom of press or low spread of efficient media. Fourthly, freer movement of services makes the news more convenience to deliver or spread out.

However, there are also some worse part of globalisation that changes the media. Although globalisation is probably helping to create more wealth for media, in 2005, a study by Peer Fiss and Paul Hirsch found a large increase in articles negative towards globalization in the years prior. For the worse part, firstly, since there are too much information which leads to more noise; for instance, how much of the massive information is valuable? Secondly, is it globalisation or westernisation? In my perspective, press and ideology are dominated by the mainstream media, and a big proportion of these mainstream media are western media. Thirdly, does every media need an international concern? All of those question above are the worse part that globalisation changes the media. 

(Total words: 265)

Social media and journalism (WEEK 9, Term-2)

How have social media changed the relationship between audiences and news, and what problems do these changes present for the traditional media?

Firstly, the social media allows connections and discussions at levels that print can not offer – people can leave comments and start discussions for news stories. Before the social media, spontaneous discussion between readers who had never met was hardly possible. People’s active participation is a big portion of digital journalism. Opinions and contents are the birth of a democratic movement that only internet and social networks can provide – It is a social media revolution. Internet communication technologies and social networking software enable people to communicate across locations and geographical boundaries.

Secondly, the news are no longer a monopolized by some authorities and everyone can put the news on the social media. In the traditional world, newspapers, businesses, governments, or other types of leading organizations published information and people would consume it. However, nowadays public is not satisfied and enough for only those information – they expect to choose what they want to know and  what they want to digest. The voices from above organizations are not the only voices of news anymore, every single person could produce news.

Since the speed of spreading out information on social media is much quicker than the traditional media, which makes news are more easily spread out; however, if there were news rumours which is harder to correct on the social media since normal people have lacked the ability to judge without proper investigation. The lack of control on the internet would usually causes many attack languages(so call internet violent), which increases the workload of journalists.

(Total words: 273)

The political economy of the media: radical versus liberal theories of the press. (WEEK 4)

How persuasive is Chomsky and Herman’s radical analysis of the media and their presentation of the ‘propaganda model’?

The propaganda theorist Edward Bernays says propaganda is that “the conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organised habits and options of the masses” (1928). In a broad term, the idea Chomsky and Herman came forward is they argue the American media serves a propagandise on behalf of powerful interest in American society. The theory of ‘propaganda model’ uses the structural economic principles to explain the reason that some media reports are inevitable biased. The propaganda model assumes that the products of media are the readers/audiences instead of the news, and media sells them to advertisers. The news have to go through five filters before presenting to the world.

The first filter is the owner of mass-media firms. Mainstream media usually is/belongs to a big corporation. Because the corporation which also has other business, so if some news may affects the benefits of other business, which would be filtered.

The second filter is what Herman and Chomsky call ‘advertising license to do business’. Advertising as the primary income source of the mass media, the benefits of advertisers are more important than the news reports.

The third filter advanced is the way the mass media sources news.The reliance of the media on information provided by government, business and ‘experts’ funded are approved by these primary sources and agents of power. Because the news media needs a lot of news information to cover daily reports, media will avoid damaging the interests of the source of the news.

The first three layers of filtration are considered the most important. The Fourth filter is ‘flak’ as a means of discipling the media. Also, the final filter would be different ideology at different time; for instance, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the ‘anticommunism’ has became a national religion and control mechanism.

(Total words: 314)

The Cold War, McCarthyism and the press (WEEK 5)

Evaluate the behaviour of the US press during the McCarthy era.

On the book International History of the Twentieth Century and Beyond, Antony Best et al gave a definition of McCarthyism, which is “General term for the practice in the United States of making accusations of pro-communist activity, in many instances unsupported by proof or based on slight, doubtful or irrelevant evidence. The term is derived from its most notorious practitioner, Republican Senator Joseph R. McCarthy of Wisconsin (1909-1957)”

Now this term is usually to be used for a description of unprovoked attack, a blame without factual basis, and some agitators use patriotism to confuse ordinary people’s mind so that they could use these words to attack and get their ends.

Between 1950 to 1956, media was one of the targets of McCarthy. However, some of them were not shocked by him. In a way, the final defeat that American media gave him was a powerful blow. 

American journalist Drew Pearson was very famous for exposing the American politicians and public figures of the scandal. He had his own personal newspaper column “Washington Merry-Go-Round” and own a radio show hosted. Although the way he did was not always good, sometimes even coined suspect; but he was the man who criticises McCarthy in his columns and radio programmes when McCarthy was at the most crazy time. Pearson and McCarthy once even had physical conflict, but fortunately was mediated by President Richard Nixon.

In 1951, the New York Post editor James A. Wechsler published 17 series articles, mercilessly criticized McCarthy’s actions. This series of articles related to McCarthy’s personal tax problems, but also related to his hypocrisy.

These two behaviours above were the examples that US press gave him during the McCarthy era.

In conclusion, McCarthyism causes a very broad influences in American society and culture, it reached many different social levels, and had became one of the sources of the big American conflict and debate.

(Total words: 319)



        总的来说,在国外的问题主要就两个:沟通 和 生存。
        人际交往上,我在这个全新的国度交到不少朋友,而且不夸张地讲,十分国际化。英国——尤其是英国的首都伦敦,它的其中一个特别之处就在于它特别特别国际化,在大街上你可以看到各式各样的人种,听到各式各样好玩儿的语言,吃到各式各样不同国家的食物。我在这边认识的朋友们,除了很多是本地人外,有几个是来自欧洲各国的,比如奥地利,罗马尼亚,意大利,荷兰;也有几个来自非洲国家的,比如说索马里;还有三四个是混血的,什么英国混俄罗斯啊,泰国混英国啊,法国混德国啊,瑞士混印度尼西亚啊。而我的同事中,也有两个从巴基斯坦和台湾来的。老师们倒是清一色来自英国。除了认识这些外国朋友们,我也认识了很多中国的朋友,大多数都是以前国际高中的学长学姐,他们都非常非常优秀。大家都知道,来英国读书的有两种人,一种是家里无比有钱然后来这边吃好喝好玩好混日子的,也有一种是像我那个国际高中真材实料出来读书的。当然,也有两者相容的,比如说混日子的英语不错(极少数,因为都是和中国人混,我曾经见过一个来英国十年的女生,英语跟渣一样…),以及好好读书但是英语不好(在我看来还是蛮多的,因为他们学的专业都是亚洲人热门的专业,所以总会有很多中国人,而和自己沟通上和文化上相像的人沟通是人类的天性,所以我再一次为自己的学习环境感到开心) 我努力在给自己寻找着一个中间的平衡点——我要融入外国朋友的圈子因为我要锻炼我的英语能力,同时我不能放下扩大中国的社交圈因为我不知道我的未来到底在哪发展,如若回到中国,我则拥有了一笔难得的优秀人脉。不过这个平衡点的确很难把握,我得小心。
        感情上,21岁的我也在异国开始了一段恋爱。值得庆幸的是,男主角暂时还是中国人。他在卡斯商学院就读 会计与金融 系的大二,是我曾经就读国际高中时的学长。他对我不错,两个人在这边,也算是互相照顾 互相进步吧!写这一段的目的只是为了告诉你们,可以给我建议和意见,但是我的人生,路还很长,最终请让我自己主宰。
        最后,祝你们所有人都身体健康,一切顺利! 夏天见啦!
                                                                                                                 2014. 4. 25

The Graduation of Homeless People

Homelessness is a vital situation and it happens all around the world. How many people are homeless? Why do people lose their accomodation? What does the latest research tell us about tackling the issue? This article attempts to assess the answers for these questions based on the United Kingdom.

There is no single reason why someone can end up without a home. Personal circumstances and wider factors both play their part. On one hand, some individual factors and experiences can make people more vulnerable to homelessness: including poor physical health, mental health problems, alcohol and drugs issues, bereavement, experience of care, and experience of the criminal justice system; on the other hand, structural factors can include poverty, inequality, housing supply and affordability, unemployment, welfare and income policies.

Personal factors and structural factors are often interrelated; individual issues can arise from structural disadvantages such as poverty or lack of education. While personal factors, such as family and social relationships, can also be put under pressure by structural forces such as poverty.

Not having a home can make it harder for individuals to find a job, stay healthy and maintain relationships, which is one of the biggest impacts of homelessness.

Hani Richter, Natalia Carcame and Liping Luo, those students who are from the Journalism course of London College of Communication, have made a special video about how homeless people ‘graduate’ from bit by bit.

How many people sleep rough in England? It can be difficult to work out the number of people sleeping rough for a number of reasons. People bed down at different times, move about, and can be hidden away in derelict buildings. However, each year every local authority in England does estimate or count the number of people sleeping rough in their area.

According to the Department for Communities and Local Government, it provides an estimate of the number of individuals sleeping out on any one night in England. According to the latest figures, collected in the autumn of 2013 and published in February 2014, 2,414 people are estimated to be sleeping rough on any one night.

This was up 5% from the estimated number of rough sleepers in 2012, 11% from 2011, and 37% from 2010.

Screen Shot 2015-02-25 at 13.01.55



Team Members for this project: 

Video filming: Hani Richter & Natalia Carcame

Video editing: Liping Luo

Article: Liping Luo

Infographic: Liping Luo


(Total words: 380)

What is Love?


Picture: Different languages for “I love you”.

What is Love? I don’t know. Thousands of people may have thousands of answers for that question. But what about when you’re only seven and your favourite person is your mum? One Saturday, me and two of my good friends went to Natural History Museum and asked children what love is, and asked people from different countries to teach us how to pronounce/write “I love you” in their own languages. Children are always pure, lovely and happy, we were pretty sure they can give us many unexpected answers. Check out the video below, the touched moments about love.

Video: What is Love? 

Love is a variety of different feelings, states, and attitudes that ranges from interpersonal affection to pleasure. It can refer to an emotion of a strong attraction and personal attachment. It can also be a virtue representing human kindness,compassion, and affection—”the unselfish loyal and benevolent concern for the good of another”. It may also describe compassionate and affectionate actions towards other humans, one’s self or animals.

To-morrow is Saint Valentine’s day,
All in the morning betime,
And I a maid at your window,
To be your Valentine.
Then up he rose, and donn’d his clothes,
And dupp’d the chamber-door;
Let in the maid, that out a maid
Never departed more.

                         —William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Act IV, Scene 5.
Valentine’s Day is a symbol of love, not doubtful at all. We set a questionnaire about the gifts most often given on Valentine’s Day (Allowing for multiple gifts given), and 40 random people are involved on the questionnaire, regardless of gender, age, occupation and race. Here are the answers.

Screen Shot 2015-02-11 at 23.50.47

Infographic about the gifts most often given on Valentine’s Day (Allowing for multiple gifts given) – 40 random people are involved on the questionnaire, regardless of gender, age, occupation and race.


Video filming:

Liping Luo         (London College of Communication, BA Journalism Year-2);

Shirley Liu         (Cass Business School, BSc IFRM Year-1);

Shangyan Cai     (Cass Business School, BSc Accounting and Finance Year-3 )

Video editing: Liping Luo

Photography: Liping Luo

Article: Liping Luo

Infographic: Liping Luo


* Specially thanks the help from Shirley and Shangyan, who are not part of LCC.

(Total words: 360)